Finnish – Word Cases – Non-productive Cases

Part one of this article – describing the Cases expressing Grammatical Functions.
Part two: Locative Cases
Part three: Others

Non-productive Cases


Meaning/function: without
Ending: -tta; ttä
Example: syyttä
Examples: S/he got angry without reason. – Hän suuttui syyttä.


Meaning/function: channel , by
Ending: -tse
Example: postitse, maitse
The books come by post. – Kirkjat tulevat postitse.
The transportation takes place by land. – Kuljetus tapahtuu maitse.


Meaning/function: means, manner, how?
Ending: -n
Example: käsin, jalan, itkien
This has been made by hand. – Tämä on käsin tehty.
Lönnrot travelled by foot. – Lönnrot teki matkansa jalan.
S/he came home crying. – Hän tuli itkien kottin.


Meaning/function: company, with
Ending: -ne (+ possessive suffix)
Example: vaimoineen, ympäristöineen
The president was also there with his wife. – Myös presidentti vaimoineen oli paikalla.
Helsinki, including its surroundings is the most densely populated area. – Helsinki ympäristöineen on tiheimmin asuttua aluetta.

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