Tag Archives: red hat

RHCSA – Rapid Track – Day 3

Wow, what a day!

Some great stuff today:

It ended with configuring a kickstart file, starting an unattended installation via PXE by referring to said kickstart file on an http-server.

Before that we were playing with partitioning, making swap, encrypting with cryptsetup and LUKS. Also very interesting.

After we learned about partitioning we did changing booting kernel parameters, resetting root password, editing grub, loading modules, setting module specific parameters etc.

And we started the day with SELinux. Very interesting, a lot of opinion about that in the room but honestly I can see that SELinux is extremely useful and doesn’t cause much harm on a desktop. Especially one where you don’t run any services. Also, there’s so often 0-day exploits for various net-services that running SELinux can’t be bad, right? There’s probably lots of other stuff you can do to do hardening in a Linux system.

Teacher did not mention chcon at all, only restorecon.

More thoughts

This RHCSA course do assume that you know a bit. For example it assumes that you know scripting, we’re not going through that at all. Using vi, less, are also assumed. Parsing, grepping etc. There are people struggling keeping up in class.

Going through all the objectives before attending is a great idea. It gives you some breathing room while doing the exercises in class and if you have stumbled upon and questions while you were experimenting yourself – you have a great opportunity to ask these in class. Another good thing with this is probably that it makes you faster at doing the task. If you can reset the root password on a VM in 60 seconds, instead of 300s – because you’re wondering about what commands to run, what parameters to send and how to send them, etc, that’ll save you a lot of time.

Mini Book Review

But even that is not enough, you really need to be experienced with Linux before. How to use the CLI and things like that. There are some good books around. Such as the book UNIX and Linux System Administration Handbook. I haven’t read all of it yet, actually just the part until Perl scripting, which is only the 2nd chapter! The stuff before chapter 3 are just basic linux administration / using the system. After that it goes into booting, filesystem, basically everything, and this is with some serious depth. Which is not for me.


Found http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CjVYnK57YLA on youtube. Pretty cool, snapshotting in LVM!

RHCSA – Rapid Track – Day 2

I wrote in the preparation that there were no ‘set up ftp/www service’. What do you think we did today in the course? Set up vsftpd and httpd :)

Ssh hardening, set up vnc server, configure firewall via gui, ntp setup. Stuff like that.

It’s getting closer! I believe tomorrow will be even more challenging, if there’s storage stuff and encryption. But, setting that up via the GUI are pretty easy. So we’ll see!

RHCSA – Rapid Track – Day 1

First day done!

What hit me was that there are many commands in linux, some you maybe only use for one purpose. But there are some things that you haven’t done with it before, so an old command can still cause some trouble. For example crontab and the last * (or, day of week) in conjunction with day/month or by itself.

Already seen one double negative (/usr/share/doc/initscripts/sysconfig.txt and PEERDNS= directive) – so beware and read carefully.

Cool things:

ls -l /net/dns.to.nfs.server/

Will automagically mount the nfs server in there. Pretty nice!

automount, autofs, with /etc/auto.master
so that you can for example set up dynamic mounting of nfs directories for users that haven’t logged on to the system.

configuring ldap authentication best done via system-config-authentication GUI tool. Doing it via the CLI takes about a gazillion (26) variables/commands.

anacron for crontab that runs the script again if the machine was off when it was supposed to run.


Red Hat Certification – RHCSA – Preparation


Found this “cheat sheet” for RHCE. Sure it doesn’t specifically say RHCSA but honestly there’s a lot of good commands in there. Some things obviously might be too advanced for RHCSA, such configuring an dns/named service. But it might be good as a reference.

The objectives of the RHCSA exam: https://www.redhat.com/certification/rhcsa/objectives/. I copied the ones I’m unsure about below.

I think definitely it would be a good idea to go through these objectives before taking the exam, and if you have time – do each step as well!

There’s a bunch of things there that I’m not sure about or know how to do. I’m attending a five day RHCSA rapid track course, so we should be able to go through the stuff I don’t know there, but doesn’t hurt to do a little preparation!

This post is about: me going through each objective and trying to accomplish it. Writing it down is for you, but mostly for me :) If you have any questions there is the comment field below.

The lists are the objectives, first level is the actual objective while the sub-lists are commands, thoughts and comments.

I’m writing this and updating it as I go along. It’s purpose is to prepare for the exam, without using any ‘cheats’ like trying to find out labs/questions that comes on the exam.

Understand and Use Essential Tools

  • Access remote systems using ssh and VNC
    • In each VM’s setting you can specify port etc to the VM.
    • vnc client:
  • Create hard and soft links
  • adjust process priority with renice,
    • renice
    • nice
    • top #to view, also in ps -fe -o pid,comm,nice
    • /etc/security/limits.conf
  • Access a virtual machine’s console
    • Open virt-manager and open the VM.
  • Start and stop virtual machines
    • Open virt-manager and stop/start there.
    • CLI: virtsh.

Add virtualization post-install.

To test: installing with only Desktop.
Packages, modules, services?

After install ‘lsmod|grep kvm’ doesn’t show anything.
Went into Add/Remove Software and added stuff under ‘Virtualization’.
After install, just trying to start virt-manager doesn’t work. It asks if libvirt service is running. ‘service libvirtd start’. Then virt-manager starts and finds the qemu. No need to reboot as ‘chkconfig –list|grep libv’ shows that they start on boot. Booting a machine after this works.

Configure Local Storage

  • Create and configure LUKS-encrypted partitions and logical volumes to prompt for password and mount a decrypted file system at boot
    • You can set this up while installing the system.
    • /etc/crypttab
    • /etc/fstab still necessary
  • Configure systems to mount file systems at boot by Universally Unique ID (UUID) or label
    • fstab: LABEL= and UUID=
    • Find label/UUID with blkid, set label with e2label.
  • Add new partitions, logical volumes and swap to a system non-destructively
    • # non-destructively? so without making the system unbootable?

You can format, partition a drive and encrypt it after install. In desktop you can go to places and find the drive in there, that will open a dialogue where you put in the password and tada. After that you can hit ‘df -h’ to get the UUID and mountpoint. This you then put in /etc/crypttab. Don’t forget to add it to /etc/fsstab too. But, be careful here. I managed to screw it up so much that it wouldn’t even boot anymore.

This is a great guide for how to set up a LUKS partition and mount it on boot.
Works for partitions created outside install.

When I did ‘custom layout’ in install and set up encryption, it appears to take a lot longer to encrypt/format. If doing this in the exam I’d consider making a small partition. Especially not a 16GB one. It took ~15minutes in comparison to 5s.
It was however fast to create with cryptsetup post-install.
If you do decide to split up the filesystem (perhaps one partition per VM) then you’ll need to set appropriate selinux settings to make it work.

Create LUKS partition to boot from post-install

During install:

vdisk in vmware of 20GB.
One partition of 500MB for /boot
One swap of 512MB
One pg of 10GB, VG of the same, and lv for /
Keeping available space of about 9GB.

After boot:

  1. fdisk -c -u /dev/sda
  2. n, p, 4, enter, enter, t, 4, 83, w
    1. new partition, primary, partition 4, starting, end (space), set type, partition 4, type 83, write
  3. some error, but fdisk -l shows the new partition /dev/sda4
  4. rebooted (tool advised to)
  5. cryptsetup luksFormat /dev/sda4
  6. cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/sda4 luksdrive
  7. ls /dev/mapper/ will show luksdrive in there.
  8. mkfs.ext4 /dev/mapper/luksdrive
  9. edit /etc/crypttab and add: /dev/mapper/luksdrive /dev/sda4
    1. man crypttab
  10. edit /etc/fstab and add: /dev/mapper/luksdrive /mnt/luksdrive ext4 defaults 1 2
    1. man fstab
  11. mkdir /mnt/luksdrive
  12. mount -a
  13. cd /mnt/luksdrive
  14. try a reboot

Mount filesystem based on UUID or label

By UUID: If you for example like above have created another partition and encrypted it and added it to fstab. You could just hit ‘blkid’ to get the UUID of the partition. Then you can change the /dev/mapper/luksdrive on the fstab into UUID=12354-515-51-5. To try it out, hit mount -a.

By label: set it with ‘e2label /dev/mapper/luksdrive lukslabel’. Then in fstab add LABEL=lukslabel instead of /dev/mapper/luksdrive. To view label hit: blkid. If there is none set, it’s not shown.

Create and Configure File Systems

  • Mount, unmount and use LUKS-encrypted file systems
    • cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/sda4 luksdrivelabel
    • mount -t filesystem /dev/mapper/luksdrivelabel /mnt/luksdrive
    • touch /mnt/luksdrive
    • umount /mn/luksdrive
  • Mount and unmount CIFS and NFS network file systems
    • mount -t nfs -o rw host:/remotedir /mnt/nfs
    • mount -t cifs //server/share /mnt/cifs –verbose -o user=username
    • umount /mnt/dir
  • Extend existing unencrypted ext4-formatted logical volumes
  • Create and configure set-GID directories for collaboration
    • A chmod on a directory that changes group owner of all files under that directory, into the same as the directory.
    • mkdir /share
    • touch /share/1
    • chgrp wheel/share
    • chmod g+s /share
    • touch /share/2
    • ls -l /share/
  • Create and manage Access Control Lists (ACLs)
    • first you need to add acl on the file system in /etc/fstab
    • getfacl
    • setfacl -m g:wheel:rw /path/file

Mount NFS file system

First, we need to set up an nfs server, this is not part of RHCSA though.

on server:
mkdir /nfs;chmod a+w /nfs
Make sure nfs-utils and rpcbind are installed.
chkconfig –list  # check nfs, nfslock and rpcbind are on
edit /etc/export # /nfs IP/netmask(rw,sync,no_root_squash)
setsebool -P nfs_export_all_rw
check /etc/hosts.allow and .deny
starts services

on client:
mkdir /mnt/nfs
mount.nfs /mnt/nfs -v -w
mount -t nfs -o rw /mnt/nfs

ACL on filesystem

  • mount # see options on your filesystem
  • vi /etc/fstab # change ‘defaults’ to the what you saw in ‘mount’ and add acl, comma separated
  • mount -o remount / # use this to remount /. Or you could reboot. Hard to unmount / if you are using it.
  • mount # now it has rw,acl
  • getfacl /root/install.log
  • setfacl -m g:wheel:rw /root/install.log
  • getafcl /root/install.log

Extend existing unencrypted ext4-formatted logical volumes

Deploy, Configure and Maintain Systems

  • Configure systems to boot into a specific runlevel automatically
    • /etc/inittab
  • Install Red Hat Enterprise Linux automatically using Kickstart
  • Configure a physical machine to host virtual guests
  • Install Red Hat Enterprise Linux systems as virtual guests
  • Configure systems to launch virtual machines at boot

Installed SLC6.1 in a VM. This time I chose both Virtual Host and Desktop Environment and X11 for packages. In VMWare Workstation 8 and the settings for the VM, do enable ‘virtualization’ in the processor options or you cannot virtualize inside the VM. It’s a lot easier to setup/install VM if you have a desktop GUI. Especially the part about you getting access to the console.

Post-install there is a GUI tool in the menu that you can use to install a VM and configure VM-stuff.

By default the virtual machine starts on boot.
In chkconfig –list. There is an entry called ‘libvirt-guests’. This is a fairly complex script that looks where the VMs are installed and boots them. You can go into the settings of the VM in the GUI and enable it to boot when the host boots.
By the way, if there are issues during boot, see /var/log/boot.log

Install a VM via an http server.

yum install php

This installs httpd with php-support.


Add port 80 in the firewall: iptables-save > fwrules. Copy the one with port 22, paste and add port 80. iptables-restore < fwrules.

To keep the rules on reboot:

/etc/init.d/iptables save

Copy DVD into your web root:

This assumes that the DVD is mounted automagically which it does for me.

sudo mkdir /var/www/html/SL6; sudo cp -pR /media/nameofdisk/* /var/www/html/SL6

If you use the -p that means it preserves the read/write permissions on the files, beceause it’s mounted as a CD/DVD that means the files are read-only. If you want to do changes don’t use the -p or you’ll have to change that stuff later.

To set SELINUX context:

chcon -R --reference=/var/www /var/www/html/SL6.

Install from HTTP

Launch the virtualization manager. Create new VM. Name and network transfer, point to your httpd. RAM, disk space. Chose network interface – I only had NAT. (if you follow my guide below you’ll need to set static IP settings). After that the machine boots and you get a console. It starts graphical and then install continues as usual. If you want to see which IP your VM in the VM gets you can look in the access_log in /var/log. By default it got an address in 192.168.122.* range. If you set too little memory you cannot get the kdump.

Bridged networking

follow this guide (incomplete) or one on linuxtopia or on libvirt wiki

  1. ifdown eth0
  2. cd /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts
  3. cp ifcfg-eth0 ifcfg-bridge0
  4. edit ifcfg-eth0 and add ‘BRIDGE=”bridge0″ ‘
  5. edit ifcfg-bridge0 and set ‘DEVICE=”bridge0″ ‘, ‘TYPE=”Bridge” ‘, ‘DELAY=”0″ ‘
  6. TYPE needs to be Bridge, capital B.
  7. ifup eth0
  8. ifup bridge0
  9. ifconfig bridge0
  10. add a rule similar to -A INPUT -i bridge0 -j ACCEPT in the iptables (don’t forget to save/restart iptables)
  11. edit /etc/resolv.conf with ‘nameserver ip.ip.ip.ip’.
  12. /etc/sysctl.conf and enable ip_forwarding. Reboot or sysctl -p /etc/sysctl.conf
  13. consider adding static IP addresses in ifcfg-bridge0. My DHCP didn’t work, probably because of some configration in VMWare Workstation. BOOTPROTO=”static”, IPADDR, NETMASK, GATEWAY, NM_CONTROLLED=”no”, ONBOOT=”yes”.

Installing with the help of kickstart

First, copy the /root/anaconda-ks.cfg to /var/www/html/SL6/ks.cfg. Also set permissions to the file as appropriate.
Then open that file in system-config-kickstart. You probably want to change some stuff. For HTTP server install set server to: and path to SL6. That’s if your path is . And of course add the whole URL to the ks.cfg. Remove virtualization packets. Change hdd layout stuff, you probably have less space available this time. Change URL to repository. Mine was still set to CD/ROM so had to manually set that during boot. Got two questions during the install: do you want to overwrite what’s on the disk? And, reboot? at the end of install. Consider removing these to speed up install.
Also, I could not log on after first reboot. Even though I kept the root password as is.

In system-config-kickstart: Set it to clear MBR, initialize labels and also to autoreboot upon completion.
For root password you need to manually enter, you can set it to plaintext. Set setupagent to disabled for a completely automatic install.
Repository you cannot change in system-config-kickstart.
Manually edit the ks.cfg.

repo –name –baseurl=
user –name user –plaintext –password 112233

Last one creates a user called user with pw 112233.

How-to Boot into CD in VM in qemu

Download the .iso.
Add new storage hardware, make it an IDE CD-ROM, hit add existing storage and select the .iso, set type to ‘raw’. Change boot order.

Manage Users and Groups

  • adjust password aging for local user accounts
    • chage
  • Set enforcing and permissive modes for SELinux
    • sestatus to see current setting
    • /etc/selinux/config # for settings
    • Command to set it ‘on the fly’:
  • List and identify SELinux file and process context
    • files: ls -Z
    • processes: ps -e fZ
  • Restore default file contexts
    • chcon -R –reference=/var/www/html /var/www/html/SL6
    • chon -t usr_t /var/www/html/SL6
    • restorecon -v /var/www/html/SL6
  • Use boolean settings to modify system SELinux settings
    • setsebool
    • to find the available settings: getsebool -a
  • Diagnose and address routine SELinux policy violations
    • Tool ‘sealert’. Logs are in /var/log/audit
    • There is also a GUI tool.

Scientific Linux 6 – Basic Setup

Not allowing root to log in

By default sshd is running on SL6 and you can ssh in with ‘root’.

Probably a good idea to change this in /etc/ssh/sshd_config

permitrootlogin no

But first, create a user that can log in.

useradd mart
passwd mart

Then you can change sshd_config and ‘service sshd reload’.

Then you can ssh in and either hit’ su -‘ to get root access.
Or, if you hit ‘visudo’ and add your user. You can later just type ‘sudo bash’ to get a root bash shell.


iptables -L to view the firewall setup, note that there is a ‘virbr0’ interface that has forwarding rules. This is probably for NAT or bridging for potential virtual machines, and was probably created when we chose ‘Virtual Host’ as the role for the system.
iptables-save : another view that may be easier to understand. This you can put in ‘file’ and then hit iptables-restore < file.

Slow before you get the login prompt while ssh-ing?

To see what is happening, ssh in with ‘ssh -v ip’.
In my case I saw

 debug1: An invalid name was supplied
Cannot determine real for numeric host address

A little googling showed me that this is because your machine doesn’t have a name lookup for that IP. So go ahead and add one in /etc/hosts and then it will be fast.

Notice that your ssh stops working after a while? Doesn’t accept input?

If so, add this to your ~/.ssh/config file:

Host *
   ServerAliveInterval 60

Make sure there is at least a space on the second line. I have three :p
You can change the * to a specific domain if you do not want to do this on all your boxes.
If the file doesn’t exist, create it.

Run sshd on a second port.

  1. Edit /etc/ssh/sshd_config
  2. Add a line saying: Port 6666
  3. look in /etc/hosts.allow (any entries? good)
  4. iptables-save > ~/fwrules
  5. vi fwrules
  6. copy the –dport 22 line and paste a new one above the -j REJECT lines (vi commands: yy and P)
  7. change the 22 to 6666 (vi commands: x for delete, R for replace mode. :wq! to save and quit)
  8. iptables-restore < ~/fwrules
  9. /etc/init.d/sshd restart

If you want you can hit: iptables -L or iptables-save.
These will also show the current iptables rules.
See ip6tables for IPv6 rules.

Now the port is running on another non-standard port (you could set it to whatever you want, as long as it’s lower then 65536 and preferably higher than 1024). This might be good for security reasons. You could still have port 22 open for access from your internal network (see adding a -s ip.add.r.ess on the row in the iptables rules) and the other one accessible from the internet or maybe even a specific network / address on the internet for even more security.

How-To : Update Spotify on RHEL6 x64 native client

See the post for how to install spotify on a Linux Client (RHEL 6 x64 in my case).

This post is for how to upgrade.

2012-02-01: Updated, added –nodeps to the rpm upgrade.
2013-01-08: This has been confirmed to work with spotify-0.8.8, updated typo in symlink part.

Why? http://repository.spotify.com/pool/non-free/s/spotify/spotify-client-qt_0.6.1.309.gb871a7d-1_amd64.deb is out!

Is available. Maybe right-click works?? =)

  1. Get the .deb into a place where you can run the program ‘alien’. I have ubuntu in a virtual machine so fired that up, downloaded the .deb
  2. sudo alien –to-rpm spotify-client-qt_0.6.1.309.gb871a7d-1_amd64.deb
  3. e-mailed spotify-client-qt- to myself
  4. save the .rpm, close spotify,  and hit:
  5. sudo rpm -Uvh spotify-client-qt-
  6. this failed, it needed

error: Failed dependencies:
libcrypto.so.0.9.8()(64bit) is needed by spotify-client-qt-
libcrypto.so.0.9.8(OPENSSL_0.9.8)(64bit) is needed by spotify-client-qt-
libssl.so.0.9.8()(64bit) is needed by spotify-client-qt-
libssl.so.0.9.8(OPENSSL_0.9.8)(64bit) is needed by spotify-client-qt-

A forum post with some more details about this.

whereis spotify ldd /usr/bin/spotify gives me: libssl.so.10 0> /usr/lib64/libssl.so.10 libcrypto.so.10 0> /usr/lib64/libcrypto.so.10


cd /usr/lib64 
sudo ln -s libcrypto.so.10 libcrypto.so.0.9.8
sudo ln -s libssl.so.10 libssl.so.0.9.8

If still no go, some advise to rename/delete ~/.config/spotify and ~/.cache/spotify

If neither of the above still works, run


rpm -Uvh --nodeps spotify-client-qt-

It’s now possible to right-click on playlists! Also to click on ‘File’ works! Woop!

Right-click on artist worked a few times. Then after a while it stopped working. AGREGHA!!#45

(still crashes with Spotify

I would guess that the problem lies with qt or webkit.

Sharing works though. It sucks a bit to not be able to add files to playlists. But clicking the star works so you can find the songs you don’t want to forget in there.
Scrobble/last.fm also works. Cannot select top list for another country.

Install Scientific Linux 6 in VMWare Workstation

Time for some more Linux testing.

The reason for this is because I think I will go ahead and try to study for the RHCSA – Red Hat Certified System Administrator. Work might send me to a course in December, probably wise to play around with it before this.

So here we go.

Scientific Linux (SL) is a free clone of Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL). Historically it’s been updated faster than CentOS. It’s same as Enterprise Linux (EL) – it’s re-compiled from source.

New VM, \SL-61-x86_64-2011-07-27-Install-DVD.iso, RHEL6 64-bit. 1 Core, 2G RAM, NAT, LSI Logic, New virtual disk, SCSI, 20G. Then boot the VM.

SL.org has this in pictures.

First thing you see is the Grub menu:

  1. Install or Upgrade
  2. Install with basic video driver
  3. Rescue
  4. Boot from local drive
  5. Memtest (I like that memtest is pretty standard now)

Chose 1. Next screen is a graphical interface where you click and write, so you need keyboard/mouse. Next screen asks if you want local disks or external storage (fc, iSCSI, or zFCP – for system Z). Hostname: SL1.localdomain.

Create disks. Custom/full size. xfs/encryption/lvm cannot be used for boot volumes.

Role: Virtual Host (I want to try KVM). Enabling SL 6.1 and SL 6.1 Security Updates repositories.

Pinging to something on the Intertubes work from the start.

More posts coming with more fun stuff :)

How-To : Install Spotify on RHEL6 x64 native client


You need premium for RHEL6 native client to work.

If you get it to work with WINE it would work for free (as a plus you get it with the very annoying ads).

My machine is a RHEL 6 64-bit.

The only requirement I had was that I did not have libQtWebKit.so.4 installed.

This was fixed with:

sudo yum install qtwebkit-2.0-3.el6.x86_64.rpm

I found this package online.
It’s needed because the spotify-install wants libQtWebKit.so.4 – this may be available in some other package available from within the red hat repositories but I couldn’t find it. If you know how/where that would be great to know :)

I have qt 4.6.2-19 but adding the WebKit in this way hasn’t caused any issues (yet).

You’ll probably need other qt-stuff installed too (I did an ldd /usr/bin/spotify after install and what it wants you can find in this file: spotify ). There’s a lot of them in there but libQtGui.so.4 , libQtCore.so.4 , libQtWebKit.so.4 , libQtDBus.so.4 , libQtNetwork.so.4 , libQtXml.so.4 are the libQt* ones.

To find which qt packages you have installed in a Red Hat based system hit:
sudo yum list ‘*qt*’

Download the spotify-client, I used spotify-client-qt_0.5.2.84.g6d797eb-1_amd64.deb. You can get the latest one via http://repository.spotify.com/pool/non-free/s/spotify/

As spotify doesn’t release an rpm anymore – you need to convert the debian .deb to rpm like this:

sudo alien –to-rpm spotify-client-qt_0.5.2.84.g6d797eb-1_amd64.deb

Then install spotify like this:
sudo yum install spotify-client-qt-0.5.rpm

Run spotify (just hit spotify in the terminal) and log in!

Worked without changing any sound settings or anything like that!
The volume control inside spotify controls the master volume, so be ware  and don’t let it blow your ears out!

Happy musicing!


I also tried to install spotify on a shell with WINE and load spotify with X11-forwarding enabled on the shell. Spotify loads and lets me log in but right after login it crashes for some reason.

Reading encrypted/password protected pdf on Linux

Brocade Logo

The problematic PDF

The CFP300 material on http://community.brocade.com/docs/DOC-2041 is encrypted so that it cannot be printed/re-edited without a password.

If you try to open this with evince (default .pdf viewer in Gnome) it will ask for a password.
pdftotext (comes with the software suite poppler) says:

Error: Weird encryption info
Error: Incorrect password

It’s only the material starting with M0* that has this issue, this has also been seen with other documents. Maybe this is because they were created with a too new version of Adobe Acrobat that evince/pdftotext doesn’t support.
The rest of the material are going to be public and they are user/admin guides anyway. But the M0* files are from the actual course material for the 16G so this is why.

The solution on RHEL6 x64: install FoxitReader. Download the .rpm – then hit ‘rpm -Uvh FoxitReader-1.1-0.fc9.i386.rpm’ and it will be installed. To start it just hit ‘FoxitReader’.

Anyway I think it’s nice of Brocade to pre-release the course material for those doing the beta-test. If you want the real material the cheapest is 650$ and then you get the material, narration of the pdfs (usually good quality, not just reading off the presentations) and a few quite good lab exercises.

The Studying

Just threading along here with the material, slowly but steady.
I’m starting with the NPIV / Access Gateway stuff. It’s a bit more complicated than just a switch that isn’t its own domain, it’s also mapping the virtual WWN to the N_ports (a switch in AG mode has N_ports that connect to F_ports in another switch). Usually N_ports are on hosts’ and targets’ ports and the switches’ has the F_ports.

Firefox 4.0 is here! – Or – I went with Google-Chrome instead

Firefox download links:




Going to test this as soon as I get home on My Windows machine.

On my RHEL6 laptop however I couldn’t just unpack the linux version and run the ./firefox.
I also couldn’t find the installation guide. Nonetheless, it complains about this;

./firefox-bin: error while loading shared libraries: libgtk-x11-2.0.so.0: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory

But sudo yum install gtk2 gives: Package gtk2-2.18.9-4.el6.x86_64 already installed and latest version.

And after a ‘find /’ I found the file here:

cat ~/find.all | grep libgtk-x11-2.0.so.0

How do I proceed? – Did not find anything online quick enough that would help me. The other requirements I could also find in my system..
I tried to run ./firefox-bin which complained about libxul.so which I also have in my system.
I tried to run it in a sudo, no difference.

If anybody reads this and has some ideas or so – please let me know :)

So I tried Google Chrome instead (haven’t tried this before) and wow, compared to Firefox 3.6.x which is the default one on RHEL6 it is really fast!

This is the link I used to install it and it worked perfectly:


  1. Add this to /etc/yum.repos.d/google.repo
name=Google - x86_64
  1. yum install google-chrome-unstable
  2. start google-chrome with: google-chrome

RHEL 5 + Unity

See my previous post for how to install it.

A couple of days later and the time is still in synch.
When I logged on there was a pop-up saying there were some updates.
Put in root password and you get to see which are updates, the ones with a symbol next to them requires a reboot (kernel update in my case).

The VNC that was installed was a VNC client, not the server.
There aren’t that many packages by default – this is probably because all depositories are not enabled and that this is not Fedora.

After installing vmware-tools, a reboot or two and the resolution can be changed to larger than 800×600. And Unity works as well!